Chapter Twenty Two

                  SAUL/PAUL THE APOSTLE  (IV).

        Paul and Barnabas had returned to Antioch where they continued in
their preaching and proselytizing efforts along with the other Greek
speaking Jews of the Nazarene Church there. As Paul had said to the Jews of
Pisidian Antioch that he was turning to the Gentiles, by now, he was only
preaching exclusively to Gentiles. But now the Nazarene message that he
delivered had changed. For he alone of all the Assembly of the Faithfull
began to teach that it was essential for his converts to believe in Jesus
as the Christ but not essential for them to join the House of Israel. This
was a dramatic and unheard of departure from what had happened before. Paul
declared that the brotherhood of Christianity over-rode all ethnic and
religious differences between Jews and non-Jews within the Church
community. This also affected all social relations between the two groups
since the believers were wont to live together and to share their meals in
common. The fact that the Jewish rituals of purity would be adversely
affected in the group by this behavior seemed not to bother Paul at all,
thereby indicating that he already was beginning to consider the ritual
laws of the Torah as being no longer binding on himself. His identification
with his Gentile converts was becomming complete. Indeed he told his
converts at Galatia, "Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I am as ye
are" (Gal. 4:12).

         Initially Paul had preached only to the G-d Fearers, those
Gentiles who congregated at the synagogues, and learned about Judaism.
Shortly however he began to go out in search of those Gentiles who had
not the slightest connection with Jews or Judaism. It is no wondewr then
that many of the Nazarene concepts, Jewish in genesis, became
unintelligible to Paul's later converts, and that he had to reinterpret
them for those he brought to believe in Jesus. The very expression JESUS
CHRIST, an original Greek reflex of "Jesus the anointed of the L--d", began
to take on a whole new meaning in the interaction between Paul and his
gentile proteges. Those Gentiles had no conception whatsoever of what a
Jewish MESSIAH was supposed to be. Therefore, very shorty, the referred to
expression became less and less descriptive, and more and more nominal. As
far as Paul and his people understood it, JESUS CHRIST was THE NAME OF A
SPECIAL REDEEMER. (This development will be traced in further detail

       The image of Jesus began to grow at the expense of Jesus' original
message to his disciples. At Antioch and where ever else Paul went, the
image of who and what Jesus was began to grow. It is remarkable that this
development could occur within a very short time but we should keep in mind
that the generation of Paul was very much like our own 1960s and 1970s. The
thirst and hunger for new hope, for new revelation was alive within the
hearts of the peoples of the Roman Empire just as it had always been alive
in the hearts of the people of Israel.

       And now, something even newer was added. Paul began to apply a new
title to Jesus to replace that of "messiah". It was a title that his Greek
speaking public would understand and appreciate much better than any Jewish
title. This was the Greek word KYRIOS, a word which literally means "lord".
It was a title used by all the Greek speaking peoples to define their
particular hero-deity, the title of the current savior gods of the Middle
East, applied to Zeus, Dionysis, and Baal, among others. Glaring examples
of his frequent usage of the formula containing this title can be seen as

     "In the name of our Lord (KYRIOS) Jesus Christ, when ye are
      gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord
      (KYRIOS) Jesus Christ."
                      I Corinthians 5:4

     "Grace to you, and peace, from G-d our Father, and the Lord
      (KYRIOS) Jesus Christ. I thank my G-d, making mention of
      thee always in my prayers, hearing of thy love and faith,
      which thou hast toward the Lord (KYRIOS) Jesus ..."
                     Philemon 1:3-5

       Later Christianity attempted to justify the use of this expression
by reference to Psalm 110:1, in which the psalmist refers to the king of
Israel as "my lord" (Heb. ADONI). It is quite true that even at presnt, as
in the ancient past, both the Hebrew ADON and the Greek KYRIOS have been
used as expressions of address to men. As such, they carry the connotation
of "sir" or "mister". But when Paul used it, it did not carry this
connotation at all. It was a title of divinity, and although Paul himself
may never have intended its use to lead to later confusion between Jesus
and G-d, nonetheless it greatly contributed to this confusion and the
eventual melding of Jesus into the persona of G-d. The beginnings of this
confusion of identity can be seen in the letters of Paul themselves. It is
as though having begun to look upon Jesus as a "Lord", Paul himself at
times unconsciously erased the distinction between the G-d of Israel and
the Jesus whom he calls Christ:

     "For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how
 shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall
 they hear without a preacher?"
                         Romans 10:13-14

     "O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of G-d!
      how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!
      For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his
      counsellor? Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be
      recompensed unto him again? For of him, and through him, and to
      him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen."
                                 Romans 11:33-36

    "For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we
     die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the
     Lord's. For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived,
     that he might be Lord both of the dead and living. But why dost
     thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother?
     for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. For it
     is written, As I live, saith the L--d, every knee shall bow to me,
     and every tongue shall confess to God. Now we have received, not
     the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of G-d; that we
     might know the things that are freely given to us of G-d. Which
     things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth,
     but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with
     spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the
     Spirit of G-d: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he
     know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But he that is
     spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man.
     For who hath known the mind of the L--d, that he may instruct him?
     But we have the mind of Christ."

                              Romans 14:8-16

     "But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of G-d:
      for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them,
      because they are spiritually discerned. But he that is spiritual
      judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man. For who
      hath known the mind of the L--d, that he may instruct him? But we
      have the mind of Christ.

                             I Corinthians 2:14-16

     "For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in
      earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,) But to us there is
      but one G-d, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him;
      and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him."
                              I Corinthians 8:5-6

   Just as HASHEM (the L--d) had replaced the actual Name of G-d in the
Hebrew bible, so had KYRIOS replaced His Name in the Septuagint, the Greek
translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. Paul could not help but have been
aware of this since he, as all Greek speaking Jews of the diaspora, was
most familiar with the Septuagint version of the Bible. We know he used
that translation exclusively since every time he quotes from the Jewish
Bible, his quotation is from the Septuagint. And knowing that, it is
absolutely amazing that he did not forsee the use of the expression "lord"
for Jesus as an eventual aid in the later identification of Jesus and G-d
in the minds of the Gentile Christians. In all respects, Paul seems to have
given them more credit in religious understanding than they deserved. Paul,
in his life, had been a student and a mystic, as well as a cosmopolitan
sophisticate. Many of his converts, on the other hand, were ordinary
unschooled simple people. Paul probably thought that Heaven would inspire
those who heard him and followed him with a new wisdom and understanding so
that they would perfectly understand him. History showed the reverse. They
very quickly gave their own simple self-interested perceptions and
conceptions to his words, and once the process was set in motion, he found
it very difficult, if not impossible, to correct what they thought. Many of
his letters are filled with pleas to them to NOT MISUNDERSTAND HIM. Yet
willfully or not, they continued in their own path and from his words, they
evolved a system of belief and behaviour which scandalized the original
Nazarene community since these beliefs and behaviours were seen as a
reflection on the entire Assembly of the Faithfull.

       Although Antioch was far from Jerusalem, word of how Paul was
proceeding in his mission was bound to reach the apostles sooner or later,
and when it did, the results were predictable. The Jerusalem Church had
never been quite happy with Paul's profession of their faith, and his new
unorthodox extension of it was not apppreciated by them. Hence they felt it
necessary to at last take some decisive action regarding him and his
missionary work.

     "And certain men which came down from Judea taught the brethren,
     and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye
     cannot be saved. When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small
     dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and
     Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto
     the apostles and elders about this question... And when they were
     come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the
     apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done
     with them. But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees
     which believed, saying, That it was needful to circumcise them, and
     to command them to keep the law of Moses. And the apostles and
     elders came together for to consider of this matter... Then all the
     multitude kept silence, and gave audience to Barnabas and Paul,
     declaring what miracles and wonders God had wrought among the
     Gentiles by them. And after they had held their peace, James
     answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me ... Wherefore
     my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the
     Gentiles are turned to God: But that we write unto them, that they
     abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from
     things strangled, and from blood ... Then pleased it the apostles
     and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own
     company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas surnamed
     Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren: And they wrote
     letters by them after this manner; The apostles and elders and
     brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles
     in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia. Forasmuch as we have heard, that
     certain which went out from us have troubled you with words,
     subverting your souls, saying, Ye must be circumcised, and keep the
     law: to whom we gave no such commandment: It seemed good unto us,
     being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto
     you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, Men that have hazarded
     their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. We have sent
     therefore Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the same things
     by mouth. For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay
     upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; That ye
     abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from
     things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep
     yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye well. So when were dismissed,
     they came to Antioch: and when they had gathered the multitude
     together, they delivered the epistle: Which when they had read,
     they rejoiced for the consolation. And Judas and Silas,
     being prophets also themselves, exhorted the brethren with many
     words,and confirmed them. And after they had tarried there a space,
     they were let go in peace from the brethren unto the apostles.
     Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still. Paul also
     and Barnabas continued in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word
     of the Lord, with many others also."

                      Acts 15:1-2,4-6,12-13,19-20,22-35

       Here we have the famous incident of "Paul and the Judaizers" as
presented by Paul's protege Luke. The reader is told that "certain men"
came to Antioch from Jerusalem to complain about the uncircumcized Gentiles
that had been brought into the brotherhood, which caused an argument
between them, and Paul and Barnabas (whom Paul had obviously brought over
to his way of thinking). Nowhere are the names of these certain men
mentioned but we can only surmise that no one who was not sent from the
Jerusalem Church for this specific task of admonishing the Antioch
community for its attitude of admitting non-Jews into the
Nazarene-Christian assembly would dare make an assertive stipulation about
criteria of admittance. We need go no further for proof that this directive
came from the Jerusalem apostles than to see that Paul and Barnabas had to
go to Jerusalem to explain their position and to ask that their approach to
the Gentiles be sanctioned by James, the supreme head of the Church.
According to Luke, James at last gave the decision that Paul's non-Jewish
converts might remain within the Church on condition that they adhere to
certain ritual and ethical behaviour. Some have attempted to see in this
rendering of James, an attempt to impose upon the non-Jewish Christians the
so-called Seven Laws of Noah found within the Oral Law of Judaism. There is
no proof that this was his intent. But whatever his immediate intent was,
he later changed his position as we shall see, and authorized the Judean
Nazarenes to travel throughout the diaspora to all the Christian
communities established by Paul for the purpose of imposing ritual
conversion to Judaism upon them.

       We must remember that the Jerusalem Church and community of
Nazarenes had long been financially dependent upon the alms continuously
collected at Antioch by Paul as well as other Nazarene-Christians. Addi-
tionally, a considerable time had elapsed since the Resurrection experience
(almost two decades) and there was no sign of Jesus' immediate return nor
was there any indication that the majority of Jews was going to accept the
crucified Nazarene as the messiah of Israel. On the other hand, there WERE
many Gentiles in the diaspora that WERE accepting him as such, albeit in a
strange new form. Therefore, initially, James allowed opportunism and
ambition to get the better of him against the more thought-out wishes of
his own Pharisaic followers, foreseeing himself as the head of a vast,
growing movement of Jews and Gentiles pitted against the Roman Empire.

       Therefore the decision of James, that the non-Jews might remain part
of the community on condition that they accept his directives regarding
food and personal moral behavior, were implimented. However, the Jerusalem
apostles were not merely content to convey this to the Church at Antioch.
They sent "chosen men", namely Barsabas, Judas and Silas, to Antioch to
oversee the implimentation of the decree. Apparently Silas, being the chief
overseer, remained at Antioch to insure that Paul did not go back on his
word to enforce the decree.

        New Testament scholars recognize many problems with Acts' account
of this entire incident. For one thing, the presentation is extremely
hostile to the Judaizers. Not only are their names not specified, which in
itself sounds suspicious, but they are referred to as "troublers" and
"subverters" who "lay burdens" upon the Gentiles which are not necessary
for their salvation. Secondly,the entire scene of the "Council of
Jerusalem" seems too smooth, as though the final decision had been easily
reached by James alone, after a brief opposition by the Pharisaic followers
and a brief impassioned plea by Peter, who we have no reason to believe
ever returned to Jerusalem after having gone to "another place" following
his arrest by Herod Agrippa and subsequent escape, a plea that the Gentiles
not be "burdened" with the requirements of the Mosaic Torah.

       But the New Testament itself contains another, probably more
historically correct, version. That is found in the letters of Paul to his
Church communities at Galatia and Corinth. In these letters, he mentions by
name those who came to criticize his work and to undo it, and he describes
his visit to Jerusalem and the so-called Council meeting in less friendly
tones than does Luke in Acts.

     "I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into
     the grace of Christ unto another gospel: Which is not another; but
     there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of
     Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other
     gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him
     be accursed. As we said before, so say I now again, if any man
     preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let
     him be accursed. For do I now persuade men, or God? or do I seek to
     please men? for if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant
     of Christ. But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was
     preached of me is not after man. For I neither received it of man,
     neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ."
                            Galatians 1:6-12

      "Then fourteen years after I went up again to Jerusalem with
       Barnabas, and took Titus with me also. And I went up by
       revelation, and communicated unto them that gospel which I preach
       among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of
       reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, in vain.
       But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled
       to be circumcised: And that because of false brethren unawares
       brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we
       have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage: To
       whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour; that the
       truth of the gospel might continue with you. But of these who
       seemed to be somewhat, (whatsoever they were, it maketh no
       matter to me: God accepteth no man's person:) for they who
       seemed to be somewhat in conference added nothing to me: ....And
       when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars,
       perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and
       Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto
       the heathen, and they unto the circumcision... But when Peter
       was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was
       to be blamed. For before that certain came from James, he did
       eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and
       separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.
       And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that
       Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation. But
       when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth
       of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being
       a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the
       Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews?"
                          Galatians 2:1-6,9,11-14

     "But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God,
     how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye
     desire again to be in bondage? Ye observe days, and months, and
     times, and years."
                           Galatians 4:9-10

     "Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ
      shall profit you nothing. For I testify again to every man that is
      circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. Christ is
      become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by
      the law; ye are fallen from grace... And I, brethren, if I yet
      preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the
      offence of the cross ceased. I would they were even cut off which
      trouble you."
                            Galatians 5:2-4,11-12

     "As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain
      you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution
      for the cross of Christ. For neither they themselves who are
      circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that
      they may glory in your flesh."
                            Galatians 6:12-13

       This letter to the Galatians was written some time after the meeting
with James and the other apostles in Jerusalem, and after the return of
Paul and Barnabas to Antioch, at a time when the Juaizers became agressive
in their efforts to undo Paul's work in the mission communities where he
had gained converts. Reading them, we learn from his words that he believed
the Jerusalem Nazarenes to be preaching "another gospel" even though he
himself was the one who had come up with his own alternate gospel,
different from the Jewish original. But he claims HIS gospel to be the
truer since he received it directly from heaven, and therefore had no need
of their tradition to support his position. And since they controvert his
gospel, he CURSES them, saying that they wish to bring his converts into
servitude for no other reason than their own glory. Further, he snidely
insults them by saying that since they wish to circumcize the
uncircumcized, they themsleves should be "cut off", that is, mutilated for
it. Then he names names! He tells of his visit to Jerusalem to see them who
"seemed to be somewhat", "seemed to be pillars". "Seemed to" here is the
equivalent of our modern "so-called". And here he is referring to James,
Peter, and John!!! And since the "certain men who came down from Judea" to
Antioch appear to be some sort of emissaries of some sort, we can only
conclude that they were sent by the "so-called" pillars of the Jerusalem
Church. Not only does Paul say he does not care one whit about their
opinion. Not only does he make mocking negative remarks about them; he even
has the audacity to call Peter a hypocrite for withdrawing from table with
the non-Jewish Christians and aligning himself with the Judean Nazarenes.
However he finishes off his discourse in stating that James extended "the
right hand of fellowship" to him in agreeing that he should work among the
Gentiles, while they worked only among the Jews. In fact, the so-called
agreement of the Council of Jerusalem never worked out as is stated in both
Acts and Galatians. The Judean Nazarenes did not leave the field of the
Gentiles open to him. As a matter of fact, they eventually entered into his
own convert communities to undo the "Christianizing" that he had done. Paul
himself, in a letter which he wrote shortly before his death, tells that
they were highly successful in Judaizing his Galatian and Corinthian
converts, and that "the believers in the east have turned away from me."
For his part, Paul never mentions the food injunctions to his converts that
James had abjured him to enforce. Promises had been given on both sides
which neither ever had any intention of keeping.

       Amazingly even his good friend Barnabas followed suit. Shortly
afterward, Barnabas, like John Mark before him, parted company with Paul
who was quickly becoming an albatross around the neck of all Judeans who
associated themselves with him. As to his converts, he chides them for
their willingness to accept upon themselves the obligations of Jewish
observances, "days" and "times". Additionally, he warns them that their
acceptance of circumcision will nullify the grace of salvation they have
found in accepting Jesus, for if they do indeed become Jews, then "Christ
shall profit you nothing." These words were the most prophetic that he ever

       The difference of opinion continued between Paul and the men of
Jerusalem. It continued and grew in intensity. Paul had taken it upon
himself to label himself an "apostle". This was the title which Jesus had
bestowed on his disciples in Luke 6:13. APOSTOLOUS is the Greek reflex of
the Hebrew SHLIAKH. It conveyed a high status among the small circle of men
who followed Jesus during his lifetime. Jesus peronally SELECTED them. The
very rationale of the verses in Acts 1:21ff (see part 16) was to
demonstrate that once one of the apostles was gone from the group, only the
other so-designated apostles could select another to fill his place. Thus
the story of the election of Matthis to fill the number of 12 apostles.
They specifically understood that Jesus has purposely chosen TWELVE of
them to reprersent the twelve tribes of Israel, and as such, they
represented the whole Jewish people in the Nazarene sceme of things. In
later Jewish Christian literature, the disciples are called the twelve
months that revolve around Jesus who is called the holy Year. This
statement is intended to ridicule anyone who would claim that a year could
contain more than twelve months and that Jesus could have more than twelve
apostles. This very same literature excoriates Paul as a visionary dreamer
whose visions were lies.

       But Paul apparently had redefined the term "apostle" to suit
himself. He said that he was the last of the apostles. Paul maintained that
the hallmark of apostleship was NOT the earthly association with the
historical Jesus but being a Resurrection witness. (II Cor 5:16). Paul
certainly felt constrained to defend himself against the Jerusalem charges
that he was NOT an apostle at all.

     "Am I not an apostle? am I not free? have I not seen Jesus Christ
      our Lord? are not ye my work in the Lord? If I be not an apostle
      unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for the seal of mine
      apostleship are ye in the Lord. Mine answer to them that do
      examine me is this, Have we not power to eat and to drink? Have we
      not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as other
      apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?" I
                          Corinthians 9:1-5

     "For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received,
      how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And
      that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according
      to the scriptures: And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the
      twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at
      once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some
      are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all
      the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one
      born out of due time. For I am the least of the apostles, that am
      not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church
      of God. But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace
      which was bestowed upon me was not in vain; but I laboured more
      abundantly than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which
      was with me.

                     I Corinthians 15:3-11

     "For though I should boast somewhat more of our authority, which
      the Lord hath given us for edification, and not for your
      destruction, I should not be ashamed: For we dare not make
      ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves with some that
      commend themselves: but they measuring themselves by themselves,
      and comparing themselves among themselves, are not wise. But we
      will not boast of things without our measure, but according to the
      measure of the rule which God hath distributed to us, a measure to
      reach even unto you. For we stretch not ourselves beyond our
      measure, as though we reached not unto you: for we are come as far
      as to you also in preaching the gospel of Christ: Not boasting of
      things without our measure, that is, of other men's labours; but
      having hope, when your faith is increased, that we shall be
      enlarged by you according to our rule abundantly,
                     II Corinthians 10:8-15

     "But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through
      his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the
      simplicity that is in Christ. For if he that cometh preacheth
      another Jesus, whom we have not preached, or if ye receive another
      spirit, which ye have not received, or another gospel, which ye
      have not accepted, ye might well bear with him. For I suppose I
      was not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles. But though I be
      rude in speech, yet not in knowledge; but we have been throughly
      made manifest among you in all things ... But what I do, that I
      will do, that I may cut off occasion from them which desire
      occasion; that wherein they glory, they may be found even as we.
      For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming
      themselves into the apostles of Christ. And no marvel; for Satan
      himself is transformed into an angel of light. Therefore it is no
      great thing if his ministers also be transformed as the ministers
      of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works ...
      Are they Hebrews? so am I. Are they Israelites? so am I. Are they
      the seed of Abraham? so am I. Are they ministers of Christ? (I
      speak as a fool) I am more; in labours more abundant, in stripes
      above measure, in prisons more frequent, in deaths oft."
                      II Corinthians 11:3-6,12-15,22-23

        Note that Paul not only disparages the Jerusalem apostles, he
compares them to Satan! who was transformed from being an angel of light.
The implication is that the real apostles, that is those who knew Jesus
"after the flesh" have now become "ministers of darkness"!

     "I am become a fool in glorying; ye have compelled me: for I ought
      to have been commended of you: for in nothing am I behind the very
      chiefest apostles, though I be nothing. Truly the signs of an
      apostle were wrought among you in all patience, in signs, and
      wonders, and mighty deeds."
                      II Corinthians 12:11-12

       As to the fact that the other, so-called, apostles and pillars of
the Church, knew the real man Jesus, that counts for nothing to Paul,
compared to an apostle who has received the word of Jesus straight from

     "Wherefore henceforth know we no man after the flesh: yea, though
      we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we
      him no more. Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new
      creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are
      become new."
                       II Corinthians 5:16-17

       Thus the stage was set for an irreconcilable split between Paul and
the Jerusalem apostles, a split which later Christianity tried to conceal
and gloss over, but which speaks out from the pages of its own scripture.
The Christian oral tradition tells of the eventual reconciliatino of Paul
and Peter and James, with Paul coming out as the master of the situation.
But there are other, older traditions, which are closer to the historical
truth, and they speak of a Paul hated and scorned by those whom he first
persecuted as a Sadducee, and later contradicted as a Christian.

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